Vitamin A is a natural vitamin to protect the skin. It is very important for the maintenance
and function of a healthy skin. Vitamin A was discovered in the beginning of the 20th
century and deciphered in the chemical structure in the year of 1931. Since 1947 it is
possible to produce it in a synthetic form. In the beginning of the fifties it was realized that
sunlight diminishes the concentration of Vitamin A in the skin and in the blood. That applies
also to all other vitamines.
Vitamin A exists in different forms. All forms are combined by the term retinoid.
1. Vitamin A-Acid
is the most active form of Vitamin A. It is obtainable of prescription only and does not play a part in cosmetic products. Applying Vitamin A-acid for external application, it makes the skin photosensitive.
is the alcohol of the Vitamin A, very active, but less aggressive than Vitamin A-acid. In this form Vitamin A is transported in the blood circulation. It is difficult to manufacture retinol into a cream, because it is easily volatile proved after a short time in a cosmetic product.
3. Vitamin A-Palmitate and Vitamin A-Acetate
are forms of ester from the Vitamin A. Because of their mildness they are tolerated of the skin. In this form Vitamin A store in the lever, too. More than 80% of the vitamin A in the skin is made of Vitamin A-palmitate. In contrast to Vitamin A-acid, Vitamin A-palmitate or -acetate don’t cause a photosensitivity.
4. Very significant is the dosis of the vitamines
For Vitamin A there exists a special measure called international units (I.U.). It is scientifically proved that a dose smaller as 500 international units has no effect to the skin. Effective doses range between 1.000 and 10.000 international units.
The effect of Vitamin A-Palmitate on the skin
1. Vitamin A promotes the growth of the cells.
The epidermis gets thicker and more stable and the process of healing accelerates.
2. Vitamin A improves the immune system of the skin.
UV-rays destroy the immune cells (Langerhans`cells). Vitamin A protects them and in this way it is possible for the cells to do their purpose; that means identification and destroying defective cells.
3. Vitamin A effects smooth tender skin.
Thick and porous horny layer is compressed stronger. The result is a better natural UV- protection and the skin feels more smooth and tender.
4. Vitamin A improves the natural moisturizing for the skin.
The fibroblasts in the dermis are stimulated and they produce more glycosaminoglycane. This kind of gel gets into the epidermis between the cells. This gel substance can store a lot of water and so it improves the natural moisturizing factor of the skin.